Guide for Authors


(A) General

(D) Short communication

(B) Original Research Paper

(E) Viewpoint

(C) Review article

(F) Units

(A) General

  • Cover letter is mandatory. It should introduce your paper and outline strength and significance of your work for publication.
  • All text is double spaced.
  • Lines are numbered consecutively.
  • Pages are numbered consecutively.
  • Sections and heading are numbered as: 1. Introduction; 2. Materials and methods [headings as 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. ...]; 3. Results [headings as 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. ...]; 4. Discussion. The other sections stands in a number-free format.
  • The authors suggest 3 potential referees.

(B) Original Research Paper

1- Title page

  • The title should be informative and present, if appropriate, the design of study.
  • The full names of authors should be provided.
  • The author’s affiliation (including Department, Faculty/School, College/Institute, University, City, Postal code, Province/State, Country) should be provided as a numbered list below the author list
  • The corresponding author’s name should be provided with email address and phone number.

2- Abstract and key words

  • Abstract should be typed as a single paragraph.
  • Abstract should not be structured with headings.
  • However, the abstract should cover a brief introduction, and state the purpose of the research, the study design and methods, a concise and accurate summary of the significant findings, and major conclusions.
  • The use of abbreviations and acronyms in the abstract is discouraged.
  • Abstracts should not be structured with headings.
  • Abstracts must be limited to a single paragraph with no more than 350 words.
  • Immediately after the abstract, provide a list of three to 7 descriptive keywords representing the main content of the article.

3- Introduction

  • The Introduction should explain the background to the study, the aims of the study, a summary of the existing literature to open research question or hypothesis, and the originality and necessity of the study.

4- Materials and methods

  • The methods section should include the aim, design and setting of the study, description of materials, a clear description of methods.
  • The Materials and Methods must provide sufficient detail so that the work can be replicated by others.
  • Established methods can be simply referenced, however a brief description must be provided. Authors should state any methodological changes were made. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand names in parentheses.
  • Materials and Methods must also include information on how observations were analysed to derive the quantitative results.
  • The type of statistical analysis used should be described.

5- Results

  • The Results should include the findings of the study.
  • All statements concerning quantitative differences between experimental conditions require quantitative data and adequate statistical treatment. In this context, the deviation parameter, the number of biological samples, and the statistical procedures should be provided for each dataset either in the main text or as part of a Figure or Table.

6- Discussion

  • The Discussion should directly address the original research question or hypothesis, as stated in the Introduction.
  • The discussion should discuss the implications of the findings in context of existing research and highlight limitations of the study.
  • The Discussion should state clearly the main conclusions.

7- Acknowledgements

  • All sources of funding for the research should be declared, as well as donations of products and materials. The role of the funding body in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript should be declared.
  • Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article, but does not meet the criteria for authorship (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). 

8- Contribution

  • The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section.
  • The contribution of each author must be listed using their initials only, e.g., SSS.
  • Please type each author’s contribution to the appropriate category and follow the example: Study conception and design: AA, BBB; Performing the experiments: AA, CCC, DD; Analysis and interpretation of data: AA, BBB, DD, Drafting of manuscript: AA, CCC, BBB; Critical revision: AA, BBB.

9- Declaration

  • All financial and non-financial competing interests must be declared in this section.

10- References

  • Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list.
  • In the text:
    • Cite references in the text using the authors’ names and publication year.
    • Use “et al.,” for articles with more than two authors.
    • with one author: According to Smith (1980), ...or (Smith, 1980)
    • with two authors: According to Brown and Smith (1976), … or (Brown and Smith, 1976)
    • with more than two authors: According to Winchester et al. (1995) or (Winchester et al., 1995).
    • Multiple references should be listed in alphabetical order, then chronological order: (Allan, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999; Billard, 1986; Green and Brown, 2006; Scott et al., 2000a, 2000b; Smith, 2015a, 2015b).
  • In the list of references:
    • All publications cited in the text should be presented in alphabetical order, and then chronological order.
    • Names of all authors must be included. Do not use “et al”.
    • Please write the abbreviation names of Journals.
    • Please provide DOI fro each reference.


Please follow the examples:

Dienel, G.A., 2019. Brain glucose metabolism: Integration of energetics with function. Physiol. Rev., 99(1), 949-1045. DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00062.2017.

Esteves de Oliveira, E., de Castro E Silva, F.M., Caçador Ayupe, M., Gomes Evangelista Ambrósio, M., Passos de Souza, V., Costa Macedo, G., Ferreira, A.P., 2019. Obesity affects peripheral lymphoid organs immune response in murine asthma model. Immunology 157(3), 268-279. DOI: 10.1111/imm.13081.

Fedorenko, O.A., Pulbutr, P., Banke, E., Akaniro-Ejim, N.E., Bentley, D.C., Olofsson, C.S., Chan, S., Smith, P.A., 2020. CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels in rat white fat adipocytes. J. Endocrinol., 244(2), 369-381. DOI: 10.1530/JOE-19-0493.

Hiramatsu, N., Cheek, A.O., Sullivan, C.V., Matsubara, T., Hara, A., 2005. Vitellogenesis and endocrine disruption. In: Mommsen, T.P., Moon, T.W. (Eds.), Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, vol. 6. Environmental Toxicology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 431-471. DOI: 10.1016/S1873-0140(05)80019-0.

Lushchak, V.I., 2011. Adaptive response to oxidative stress: Bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol., 153(2), 175-190. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.10.004.

Park, S., Kim, D.S., Kang, E.S., Kim, D.B., Kang, S., 2018. Low-dose brain estrogen prevents menopausal syndrome while maintaining the diversity of the gut microbiomes in estrogen-deficient rats. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 315(1), E99-E109. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00005.2018.

Hill, R.W., Wyse, G.A., Anderson, M., 2008. Animal physiology, second ed. Oxford University Press, Incorporated.

Marshall, A., Bennett, M. B., Kodja, G., Hinojosa-Alvarez, S., Galvan-Magana, F., Harding, M., Stevens, G., Kashiwagi, T., 2011. Manta birostris. In IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2013.2. Available at (last accessed 9 December 2013).


11- Tables

  • Tables are numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text.
  • The table caption is concise and descriptive, and understandable without reference to the main text.
  • Statistical measures, such as Mean, Standard deviation (SD) or Standard error (SE) should be identified in the table caption.
  • If any scientific name(s) of the species, it should be written in full.
  • Dimensions for the units should be indicated.
  • Explain all abbreviations used in the table in the footnotes.

12- Figure legends

  • A figure legend should comprise a brief title and a description of the illustration.
  • It should be concise and stand informative without reference to the main text.

13- Figures

  • Figures are submitted in TIFF or JPEG format.
  • Figures are submitted as separate files.
  • Label figure sections as A, B, etc in the top left-hand corner.

14- Supporting Information

  • A submission may include “Supporting Information” such as videos, animations, long datasets, tables and figures.


(C) Review article

The format of review articles is more fluid but should include the following: 

1- Title page

2- Abstract and Key words

3- The manuscript body

4- Conclusions or future perspectives

5- Acknowledgements

6- Contribution

7- Declaration

8- References

9- Figure legends

10- Tables and Figures


(D) Short communication

A Short Communication is limited in length (no more than 4 printed pages; 2,750 words of text).

Please consider following format to prepare the manuscript:

  • Title page (See Research article)
  • Abstract and Key words: They are no more than 175 and 3 words, respectively.
  • The body of manuscript incudes statement of significance, materials and methods, results and discussion. However, the main text is written in freeform without any headings.
  • Acknowledgements (See Research article)
  • Contribution (See Research article)
  • Declaration (See Research article)
  • References (See Research article)
  • It is normally includes no more than 2 Tables and 2 multi-panel figures.
  • A figure legend should comprise a brief title, and should be concise and stand informative without reference to the main text (See Research article).
  • The table caption is concise and descriptive, and understandable without reference to the main text (See Research article).

(F) Viewpoint


Viewpoint articles should express an opinion or a hypothesis based on rigorous scientific research in biological sciences. A viewpoint is written in the style of an opinion piece in a newspaper or magazine. The MS consists of:

  • Title page (see Research article)
  • Abstract and key words: The MS is without abstract and key words.
  • Manuscript body: It should not be structured with headings.
  • The MS is limited to 1,400 words including manuscript body, references, Acknowledgements, Contribution, and Declaration.
  • Acknowledgements (See Research article)
  • Contribution (See Research article)
  • Declaration (See Research article)
  • Figure: 1 single-frame figure (See research article)
  • Table: a max. 350-word table (See Research article)

(F) Units

Some Units of Measure

b.w. - body weight

°C - degrees Celsius

cpm - counts per min

dpm - disintegrations per min

g – gram

ga - gauge of hypodermic needle

hr - hour

ha - hectare

kg - kilogram

L - liter

M - mole

mM - millimolar

µM - micromolar

mL - milliliter

µL - microliter

µm - micrometer

m - meter

min - minute

Osmol - osmolality/osmolarity

mOsmol - milliosmolality/milliosmolarity

s - second

v:v - volume ratio

wt/vol - weight per volume

y - year

Routes of treatment

id - intradermal

im - intramuscular

iu - intrauterine

iv - intravenous

sc - subcutaneous

po - oral

Statistical expressions

ANOVA - analysis of variance

CV - coefficient of variation

df - degrees of freedom

F - variance ratio

NS - not significant

P - probability

SD - standard deviation

SEM - standard error of the mean

r - correlation coefficient

r2 - coefficient of regression