Transcription of growth hormone mRNA as a molecular marker of egg quality in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

Document Type: Original Research Papers

Authors

1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmehsara, Iran

2 Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute/Agriculture Research Education Extension, Organization, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) is an economically important species. Sturgeon stock
assessment during fingerling production is considered to be one of the most difficult phases of
hatchery rearing. The present study investigated the expression of growth hormone (GH)
mRNA in unfertilized eggs, fertilized eggs, eyed eggs (2 day before hatching), non-viable eggs
and newly-hatched Siberian sturgeon. Knowledge about the expression of GH during egg and
embryo development can help determine the quality of the eggs. This can help predict larval
viability and, to some extent, directly determine the growth and survival of young fish. Little is
known about the effect of this hormone on egg quality in sturgeon. The present study analyzed
relative GH mRNA expression using the 2-ΔΔCT method. Ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6)
transcripts were used as the housekeeping gene for normalization of GH mRNA transcription.
The highest levels of GH mRNA were found in eyed eggs and the lowest levels were detected in
non-viable eggs (P< 0.05). These findings suggest GH mRNA as a potential marker for egg
quality in Siberian sturgeon.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1. Cao, H., Zhou, R.J., Wei, Q. ., Li ,C.G. and Gui, J.F. (2011). Molecular characterization of the growth hormone in Chinese sturgeon and its expression during embryogenesis and early larval stages. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 27, 501-504.

2. Herrero-Turrion, M.J., Rodriguez, R.E., Velasco, A., Gonzalez-Sarmiento, R., Aijon, J. and Lara, J.M. (2003). Growth hormone expression in ontogenic development in gilthead sea bream. Cell. Tissue Res., 313, 1-92.

3. Revol, A., Rodriguez, M.L.G., Montenegro, V.H., Aguilera, C., Saldana, H.B. and Mendoza, R. (2005). Cloning of the growth hormone cDNA of alligator gar Atractosteus spatula and its expression through larval development. Comp .Biochem. Physiol., 140, 423-429.

4. Gonzaga, J., Anderson, A., Richardson, N., Nocillado, J. and Elizur, A. (2010). Cloning of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF– IR cDNA in Mullet (Mugil cephalus ) and Grouper (Epinephelus coioides): Molecular Markers for Egg Quality in Marine Fish. A. J. Biol. Sci., 3, 55-67.

5. Taga wa, M., Anderson, A., Richardson, N., Nocillado, J. and Elizur, A. (1996). Current understanding of the presence of hormones in fish eggs. In Watanabe, Y., Yamashita Y. and Oozeki, Y. (eds.), Survival Strategies in Early Life Stages of Marine Resources. Balkema, Rotterdam, AA, 1, 67-82.

6. Jones, P.A. and Takai, D. (2001). The role of DNA methylation in mammalian epigenetics. Science., 293, 1068–1070.

7. Reik, W., Dean, W. and Walter, J. (2001). Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian development. Science., 293, 1089–1093.

8. Riddihough, G. and Pennisi, E. (2001). The evolution of epigenetics. Science., 293, 1060-1063.

9. Ayson, F.G., Kaneko, T., Hasegawa, S. and Hirano, T. (1994). Differential expression of two prolactin and growth hormone genes during early development of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in fresh water and seawater implications for possible involvement in osmoregulation during early life stages. Gen.Comp. Endocrinol., 5, 143-152.

10. Duguay, S.J., Lai-Zhang, J., Steiner, D.F., Funkenstein, B. and Chan, S.J. (1996). Developmental and tissue-regulated expression of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs in Sparus aurata. J. Mol. Endocrinol., 16, 123– 132.

11. Funkenstein, B., Shemer, R., Amuly, R. and Cohen, I. (1996). Nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of Sparus aurata insulin-like growth factor I gene and expression of IGF-I in eggs and embryos. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol., 5, 43– 51.

12. Funkenstein, B., Amuly, R. and Chan, S.J. (1997). Localization of IGF-I and IGF-I receptor mRNA in Sparus aurata larvae. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 107, 291– 303.

13. Greene, M.W. and Chen, T.T. (1997). Temporal expression pattern of insulin-like growth factor mRNA during embryonic development in a teleost, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol., 6, 144–151.

14. Shiraishi, K., Matsuda, M., Mori, T. and Hirano, T. (1999). Changes in expression of prolactin- and cortisol- receptor genes during early life stages of euryhaline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in fresh water and seawater. Zool. Sci., 16, 139– 146.

15. Yang, B.Y., Greene, M. and Chen, T.T. (1999). Early embryonic expression of the growth hormone family protein genes in the developing rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 53, 127–134.

16. Tagawa, M., Hagiwara, H., Takemura, A., Hirose, S. and Hirano, T. (1997). Partial cloning of the hormone binding domain of the cortisol receptor in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, and change in the mRNA level during embryonic development. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 108, 132– 140.

17. Yamano, K. and Miwa, S. (1998). Differential gene expression of thyroid hormone receptor a and b in fish development. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 109, 75– 85.

18. Pourkazemi, M. (2006). Caspian sea sturgeon conservation and fisheries: Past, and Future. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 22, 12-16.

19. Conte, F.S., Doroshov, S.I., Lutes, P.B. and Strange, E.M. (1988). Hatchery Manual for White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (R): with Application to Other North American Acipenseridae. Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of California, Oakland.

20. Chomczynski, P. and Sacchi, N. (1987). Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol–chloroform extraction. Anal. Biochem.,162, 156– 159.

21. Akbarzadeh, A., Farhmand, H., Mahjoubi, F., Nematollahi, M.A., Leskinen, P., Rytkonen, K. and Nikinmaa, M. (2011). The transcription of 1-gulono-gamma-lactonoxidase, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of ascorbate, during development of Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 158, 282-288.

22. Radonic, A., Thulke, S., Mackay, I.M., Landt, O., Siegert, W. and Nitsche, A. (2014). Guideline to reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 313, 856–862.

23. Livak, K.J. and Schmittgen, T.D. (2001). Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-(ΔΔct) Method. Methods., 25, 402-408.

24. Lacroix, M.C., Evinoy, E.D., Servely, J.L., Puissan, C. and Kann, G. (1996). Expression of the growth hormone gene in ovine placenata: detection and cellular localization of the growth hormone gene in ovine placenta: detection and cellular localization of  the protein. Endocrinology., 137, 4886-4892.

25. Golos, T.G., Durining, M., Fisher, J.M. and Fowler, P.D. (1993). Cloning of four growth hormone/ chorionic somatomammotropin-related complementarydeoxyri-bonucleic acids differentially expressed during pregnancy in the rhesus monkey placenta. Endocrinology, 133, 1744-1752.

26. Frankenne, F., Closset, J., Gomez, F., Scippo, M.L., Smal, J. and Nsnnen, G.H. (1988). The physiology of growth hormones (GHS) in pregnant women and partial characterization of the placental GH variant. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 66, 1171-1180.

27. Izadyar, F., Zhao, J., VanTol, H.T., Colenbrander, B. and  Bevers, M.M. (1999). Messenger RNA expression and protein localization of growth hormone in bovine ovarian tissue and in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) during in vitro maturation. Mol .Reprod. Dev., 53, 398-406.

28. Zhao, J., Taverne, M.A., van der Weijden, G.C., Bevers, M.M. and van den Hurk, R. (2002). Immunohistochemical localisation of growth hormone (GH), GH receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and type I IGF- I receptor, and gene expression of GH and GHR in rat preantral follicles .Zygote., 10, 85-94.

29. Li, W.S., Chen, D., Wohg, A.O. and Lin, H.R. (2005). Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and ontogeny of mRNA expression of growth hormone in orange- spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 144, 78-89.

30. Ozaki, Y., Fukada, H., Tanaka, H., Kagawa, H., Ohta, H., Adachi, H., Akihiko, H. and  Yamauchi, K. (2006). Expression of growth hormone hormone receptor during early development in the family and growth Japanese eel (Anguilla  japonica). Comp .Biochem Physiol., 145, 27-34.

31. Kolangi Miandare, H., Farahmand, H., Akbarzadeh, A., Ramezanpour, S., Kaiya, H., Miyazato, M., Rytkönen, K.T. and Nikinmaa, M. (2013). Developmental transcription of genes putatively associated with growth in two sturgeon species of different growth rate. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 182, 41–47.

32. DeJesus, E.G.T., Ayson, F.G., Amemiya, Y., Hyodo, S., Hirano, T. and Kawauchi, H. (2002). Milk fish (chanos chanos) growth hormone cDNA cloning and mRNA expression in embryo and early larval stage. Aquaculture., 208, 177-188.

33. Ostaszewska, T. and Dabrowski, K. (2009). Early development of Acipenseriformes (Chondrostei, Actinopterygii). In Kunz, Y. W., Luer, C. A. and Kapoor, B. G. (eds.), Development of Non-teleost Fishes. CRC Press, Science Publishers Inc, USA, 1, 170-229.